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四六級寫作中詞匯量不足的應急措施

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在四六級作文中,詞匯量不足是影響成績的一個重要因素。一個意思往往因為一個單詞不會而表達不清,一個好的句子也會因為一個詞匯想不起來而不能完成。如何應付這種情況使作文順利進行下去?下面是三種簡便易行的應急措施可能對你會有所幫助。

 

  1.試用籠統詞

  英語語言中籠統詞有have, take 等,籠統詞的重要特點在于意義廣泛,搭配性強,構成詞組后可以替代眾多具體動詞。雖然不能精確表達一個動作,卻能大致表達意思。在一些具體動詞寫不出來的時候,用這些籠統詞取代,也能收到異曲同工的效果。

  例如:我經歷了一個極其艱苦的時代。

  I experienced a terrible hard time.

  這一句中,experience被遺忘時,用 have代替,成為:I had a terrible hard time. 其效果及表達的意義決不亞于第一句。這樣的例子還很多。如:

  Do you understand my meaning, sir? = Do you take my meaning, sir?

  I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting.

  I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper.

  They occupied the city. = They took the city.

   The boy resembles his father. = The boy takes after his father.

  從以上的例句不難看出,具體詞音節較多,使用頻率不高,容易遺忘,而籠統詞則不然。因此,在作文應試中,籠統詞取代具體詞,不失為一種應急良策。

  2.聯想有關詞匯

  當遺忘產生時,或遇到未曾學過的詞時,應采取放射性思維,發揮想象力,想出一切與之有關的單詞,利用語言的內在聯系,多層次,多角度地運用語言。一般情況下,聯想可按下列思路進行:1聯想同義詞;2聯想反義詞。

  英語語言中眾多的同義詞在許多情況下是可以通用的。利用這一規律,由于某個單詞受阻而影響全篇寫作的情況便不會出現。試看下列句子:

  I had a nightmare last night. = I had a bad dream last night.

  Nightmare 使用頻率不太高,因此不太好記。而其同義詞bad dream 卻很容易記。以后者取代前者絲毫不影響原句的意義。再比如:I don‘t understand this word. 也可以說成 I don’t know this word.

  另外:

  He is stupid. = He is foolish. = He is a fool. = He is silly.

  The food is delicious. = The food is tasty. = The food is nice to eat.

  They discontinued the work at five. = They stopped the work at five.

  His temper is nasty. = His temper is terrible. = He has a bad temper.

  英語語言中詞與詞之間是有聯系的,詞與詞之間語義的“共核”現象即所謂的同義詞。豐富的同義詞給我們提供了極大的方便。

  同樣,用其反義詞來取代某一遺忘了的詞也是可行的,請看下面的例子:

  He is stubborn. = He is not tame.

  The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp.

  This is expensive. = This is not cheap.

  She is talkative. = She is never quiet.

  3. 試用解釋性語句

  語言的功能在于表達,而表達的方式是多種多樣的。當一個詞影響到??以溝通。英語當中多功能解釋性語句,就可以起到這一作用。請看下面的句子:

  He is a dumb. = He is a person who can not speak.

  He refused. = He said “no”.

  I‘ve never seen such a stubborn person. = I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other‘s advice.

  解釋性語句能幫助我們巧妙地避開一些大詞,難詞,又能使意思表達流暢,不失為一聰明之舉。比較下面兩篇文章:

  (1)

  Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest is, but all being domineered by it. It represents a trial; the grade its verdict.

  Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can dominate one‘s future. I am not exaggerating; for you all know it is true. If we want to obtain a diploma, we must first pass the exams. If we do not have a diploma, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may concern their future.

  But as long as examination is on its peak of power, we must be philosophical of it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may indulge ourselves in other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and thoroughly?

  (2)

  Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all dislike it (hate it), but all being ruled by it. It is a trial; the grade its decision.

  Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can control one‘s future. I am telling the truth, for you all know it is true. If we want to get a graduation paper, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may have something to do with their future.

  But as long as examination is on its highest point of power, we must have a calm attitude to it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may spend our time on other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and deeply?

  比較兩篇文章,第一篇短小精干,用詞準確,不失為一篇優秀作文。而第二篇全篇采用最普通的詞匯,意思同樣清楚,也不失得體,流暢。

  四六級作文的評分標準一般側重于能清楚地表達意義,段落,層次有系統性,語法正確,而并不過分強調用詞的精確度。因此作文應試的要領應該是快捷、清楚、流暢。所以,就考試而言,碰到難詞或遺忘詞時,過分地把時間花在“鉆牛角尖”上是不明智的,而應該采取靈活的思維方法、迂回的戰術,運用簡單、易記的詞匯及表達方式,從而能夠運用有限的詞匯作出美妙的文章,輕松自如地駕馭語言,把握時機,以聰明克服缺陷,以機智靈巧克服學究式的笨拙,以少勝多,最大限度地發揮自己的潛能。


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